Political participation via social media: a case study of deliberative quality in the public online budgeting process of Frankfurt/Main

Abstract: 
If social media are to reinforce sustainability of political decisions, their design has conceptually to take into account the implications of deliberative democracy, which stresses the active cooperation of virtually all citizens of a democracy for the purposes of participatory involvement. Essential to deliberative e-democracy is therefore a technologically supported comprehensive discourse about political subjects which is also called deliberation. Theoretical implications of deliberation are discussed from the angle of political science and social psychology. Finally, the practical implications of deliberation rooted in social media are exempli´Čüed by an online citizen involvement for the public budgeting purposes of the city of Frankfurt/Main (Germany).

Keywords: Sustainable systems design, Deliberation, Social media, Social capital, Collective intelligence, e-Democracy. [Download]

What is Determinism?

Determinism, in philosophy, theory that all events, including moral choices, are completely determined by previously existing causes. Determinism is usually understood to preclude free will because it entails that humans cannot act otherwise than they do. The theory holds that the universe is utterly rational because complete knowledge of any given situation assures that unerring knowledge of its future is also possible. Pierre-Simon, Marquis de Laplace, in the 18th century framed the classical formulation of this thesis. For him, the present state of the universe is the effect of its previous state and the cause of the state that follows it. If a mind, at any given moment, could know all of the forces operating in nature and the respective positions of all its components, it would thereby know with certainty the future and the past of every entity, large or small. The Persian poet Omar Khayyam expressed a similar deterministic view of the world in the concluding half of one of his quatrains: “And the first Morning of Creation wrote / What the Last Dawn of Reckoning shall read.”

Indeterminism, on the other hand, is the view that at least some events in the universe have no deterministic cause but occur randomly, or by chance. Exponents of determinism strive to defend their theory as compatible with moral responsibility by saying, for example, that evil results of certain actions can be foreseen, and this in itself imposes moral responsibility and creates a deterrent external cause that can influence actions. [source]

PERATURAN PEMERINTAH, PERATURAN PRESIDEN, PERATURAN MENTERI DLL TENTANG ENERGI

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 PERPRES No. 9 Th 2013
PENYELENGGARAAN PENGELOLAAN KEGIATAN USAHA HULU MINYAK DAN GAS BUMI 
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